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Calcium oxalate stones
CaOx stones occur in both the bladder (lower urinary tract) and kidneys (upper urinary tract) of male and female dogs. Most calcium oxalate uroliths are nephroliths (found in the kidney), and most of the affected patients are small-breed males. CaOx uroliths are radiopaque and most are easily seen on radiographs (X-rays).
Twenty-five years ago, struvites were the most common uroliths collected from canine patients, representing almost 80 percent of the total, while only 5 percent were calcium oxalate stones. The percentage of struvite uroliths found has declined while that of CaOx stones has risen, so that nearly half of all canine uroliths analyzed today are calcium oxalate stones. It’s unknown whether the incidence of struvite stones has decreased or if the change is due solely to an increase in calcium oxalate uroliths.
Similar changes have occurred in cats, but in that case, we have a good idea why. Twenty years ago, calcium oxalate stones were virtually unheard of in cats, who commonly formed sterile struvites. In an effort to reduce the risk of struvites, pet food manufacturers began adding urinary acidifiers while reducing the magnesium content of foods. This resulted in a reduced incidence of struvite stones, but calcium oxalate stones developed instead.
In addition to breed and sex, risk factors for CaOx stones include being overweight, under-exercised, neutered, and eating a dry food diet, which contributes to more concentrated urine. Small dogs are thought to be more susceptible because they drink less water relative to their size than large dogs do.
One risk factor is insufficient or abnormal nephrocalcin, a strongly acidic glycoprotein present in normal urine that inhibits calcium oxalate crystal growth. Dogs who produce normal and sufficient nephrocalcin have a reduced risk of developing calcium oxalate stones.
Certain prescription drugs contribute to the formation of CaOx uroliths. Prednisone and other cortisone-type medications prescribed for inflammatory illnesses such as arthritis, itchy skin, or inflammatory bowel disease, can contribute to the formation of CaOx stones. So can the diuretic drug furosemide (brand names Lasix or Salix), which is given to dogs with congestive heart failure. Thiazide-class diuretics are recommended in place of furosemide for dogs who are prone to forming CaOx stones.
Some nutritional supplements, such as vitamins C and D, are believed to contribute to the formation of oxalate stones. Uroliths can develop in any breed, but the greatest number of calcium oxalate stones presented for analysis have come from Miniature Schnauzers, Bichon Frises, Standard Schnauzers, Lhasa Apsos, Shih Tzus, Yorkshire Terriers, Miniature Poodles, Pomeranians, Parson Russell Terriers, Papillons, Keeshonds, Samoyeds, Chihuahuas, Cairn Terriers, Maltese, Toy Poodles, West Highland White Terriers, Dachshunds, and mixed breeds.
Cocker Spaniels, German Shepherds, Golden Retrievers, and Labrador Retrievers are believed to be at decreased risk of CaOx stones.
In a study published in the American Journal of Veterinary Research in 2001, eight healthy Labrador Retrievers and eight healthy Miniature Schnauzers, all about three years old, were fed the same nutritionally complete dry dog food for 24 days while being monitored for calcium oxalate risk factors. The Miniature Schnauzers urinated significantly less often and had a higher urinary calcium concentration. These observations led researchers to conclude that important differences in urine composition exist between breeds fed the same diet.
Conventional veterinary practitioners tend to consider calcium oxalate stones irreversible, unaffected by diet or medical therapy, and untreatable except by surgery. They may attempt to remove small bladder stones by flushing the bladder with sterile saline, or perform shock wave or laser lithotripsy (processes that break stones into small pieces that can be flushed out or excreted in the dog’s urine). Surgery may not be necessary for stones that are clinically inactive (not growing or causing problems).
Uroliths pose a more serious problem for male dogs than females, because their urine travels through a hollow bone (os penis) that surrounds the urethra within the penis. The bone cannot stretch or expand to accommodate a stone traveling through it, and obstructions readily result.
For males with recurring stones, a surgical procedure called urethrostomy sends urine on a new path, avoiding the os penis. The urethrostomy creates a new urinary opening in the scrotum area. This type of surgery cannot be performed unless the dog is neutered; if he is intact, he can be neutered at the time of the urethrostomy.
In up to 60 percent of conventionally treated patients, calcium oxalate stones recur within three years. In dogs with Cushing’s Disease (hyperadrenocorticism) or excessive calcium in the blood (hypercalcemia), both of which predispose dogs to CaOx stones, the recurrence rate is faster. It’s important to treat these underlying causes, if found, to help prevent recurrence.
The recurrence rate among Bichons is higher than that of any other breed. In a study presented at the 2004 meeting of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 24 out of 33 Bichons had oxalate stone recurrence after cystotomy. During the first year after surgery, 37 percent of these patients had their first recurrence; by the end of the second year, 57 percent did; and by the end of the third year, 73 percent had at least one recurrence and some had more than one.
Calcium oxalate crystals are of concern, but their presence doesn’t necessarily mean your dog is at risk of forming stones. Crystals are significant only if found in fresh urine. Crystals that form when urine is refrigerated or analyzed more than 30 minutes after collection may be incidental and not indicative of a problem. Dogs with calcium oxalate crystals in fresh urine should be monitored, and if the finding continues, steps should be taken to reduce the risk of stone formation, particularly in breeds most commonly affected.
In the past, diets restricted in both protein and phosphorus were thought to reduce the risk of calcium oxalate formation. Studies found, however, that dietary phosphorus restriction increased calcium absorption and the risk of calcium oxalate formation, while higher levels of dietary protein reduced the risk of urolithiasis. Current recommendations for dogs prone to forming CaOx stones say that diets should not be restricted in protein, calcium, or phosphorus.
In February 2002, The American Journal of Veterinary Research published a study conducted at the University of Minnesota College of Veterinary Medicine’s Minnesota Urolith Center that compared dietary factors in canned food with the formation of calcium oxalate uroliths in dogs, with surprising results. Canned diets with the highest amount of carbohydrate were associated with an increased risk of CaOx urolith formation. Contrary to commonly accepted beliefs, the study concluded that “canned diets formulated to contain high amounts of protein, fat, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, and moisture and a low amount of carbohydrate may minimize the risk of CaOx urolith formation in dogs.”
In contrast, both Hill’s Canine u/d and Royal Canin Urinary SO, often prescribed for dogs prone to forming CaOx stones, are extremely low in protein, and restrict calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and potassium (Royal Canin is less restrictive than u/d). See The Side Effects of Low Protein Diets for more information.
At the beginning of her nutritional experiment, Bean reduced her dogs’ protein levels so much that they began to lose muscle mass.
“After much research, analysis, and discussion with my veterinarians,” she says, “I increased their protein levels to 33-40 percent of the total volume of food. They quickly regained their lost weight and muscle, and there were no further problems with muscle loss.”
As Bean discovered, it’s very important not to reduce protein too much. Even the most severely phosphorus-restricted diets for renal failure recommend feeding a minimum of 1 gram of protein per pound of body weight daily (as determined by a nutritional analysis, not grams of meat).
Water, the key ingredient
The most important thing you can do for a stone-prone dog is increase fluid consumption and opportunities to urinate. Urine becomes concentrated when insufficient fluids are consumed or when dogs are not able to relieve themselves and have to hold their urine for long periods. And concentrated urine contributes to supersaturation with minerals that can precipitate into crystals and lead to stones.
Update: See The Not So Secret Solution for Urinary Crystals in Pets for a veterinarian's advice: "Special diets limit certain minerals and manipulate the ingredients to create a urine pH (measurement of acidity or alkalinity) that is unfavorable for crystals and stones to form. Those of you with pets that have had multiple surgeries to remove bladder stones are well aware of the limitations of these diets to successfully prevent stone formation. The answer appears to be water, H2O, and more water."
One way to encourage dogs to increase their water consumption is to add salt to their food, but salt is controversial when it comes to calcium oxalate uroliths. Increasing dietary salt encourages the kidneys to excrete more calcium, raising urinary calcium levels.
One might predict that increased sodium would therefore lead to increased calcium oxalate formation, but that isn’t necessarily true. In a 2003 study, dogs were fed dry diets containing varying amounts of sodium. The diets that contained 300 mg sodium (about 1/8 teaspoon salt) per 100 calories significantly reduced urinary calcium oxalate supersaturation over diets containing 60 mg or even 200 mg sodium per 100 calories. Increased fluid consumption resulting from the thirst generated by additional salt probably offset the increase in calcium excretion. A human retrospective study published in 2009 concluded, “Increasing urine sodium does not appear to increase the risk of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis (kidney stones).”
Bean, however, does not add salt to food. The majority of human studies indicate that adding salt is inadvisable, and many who elected to apply the FuzzerFood regimen for their own dogs were unsuccessful in attempts to dissolve or prevent recurrence of calcium oxalate stones when they departed from the guidelines Bean developed for her own dogs.
You can help your dog drink more by providing fresh water in clean dishes in several locations; changing the water frequently; adding small amounts of tuna water, salt-free or low-sodium broth, a favorite juice, or other flavoring agent to drinking water in addition to offering plain water; adding water to food; offering ice cubes as treats; using a pet water fountain to provide continuously filtered fresh running water; offering water at every opportunity; and carrying water and a portable bowl while hiking or traveling.
What type of water should you use? Bean prefers steam-distilled water because it contains no minerals that might combine with excess oxalic acid. Physicians she consulted with told her that both hard and soft water may increase the risk of calcium oxalate formation. Reverse-osmosis water filters remove 95 percent of minerals, making RO-filtered water nutritionally similar to distilled water - Noot Lizzy: ik lees net in een ander artikel dat je echt geen gedistilleerd water moet geven, ik zou gewoon leiding water geven.
Not all minerals in water contribute to kidney or bladder stones. In several studies conducted in the 1990s, human patients who formed calcium oxalate nephroliths drank a French mineral water containing high levels of calcium (202 parts per million) and magnesium (36 ppm). Nearly every risk factor for calcium oxalate nephroliths improved significantly. The same patients also drank local tap water and mineral water with low calcium/magnesium concentrations, neither of which improved the measured risk factors. The researchers concluded, “The risk of calcium oxalate stone formation can be significantly reduced by consumption of mineral water which is rich in calcium and magnesium.”
Other research on the effects of hard and soft water on urolith formation has shown mixed results regarding risk, possibly due to variations in mineral content and ratios, along with factors such as whether the water was given with or between meals. For this reason, distilled water may be safest, particularly for dogs with kidney stones or recurrent bladder stones.
Getting extra water into your dog is only part of the urolith-prevention strategy. Just as important is the frequent release of urine. Give your dog many opportunities to go outside during the day. If your dog is indoors alone or crated for hours each day, find a way to create a convenient elimination area using plastic, newspapers, towels, a patch of sod, or whatever you can devise to keep your dog from having to hold her urine for long periods.
Calcium oxalate stones form in urine that is acidic, typically measuring between 5.0 and 6.5 on the pH scale. Calcium oxalate crystals are generally not sensitive to urinary pH, but marked acidification that induces metabolic acidosis can promote calcium oxalate stone formation due to increased urinary calcium concentration.
A common recommendation for dogs prone to forming calcium oxalate stones is to alkalize the body with foods or medications to bring the urinary pH closer to 7, which is neutral. Alkalizing the urine will not cause existing stones to dissolve but may help prevent new stones from forming. It’s important not to try to alkalize the urine too much, as this can lead to the formation of calcium phosphate stones.
You can monitor your dog’s urine by holding a pH test strip (see Resources) in the stream or by collecting urine in a paper cup or clean dish for testing.
But don’t be surprised if your dog’s urinary pH stays where it is. Leslie Bean describes her careful monitoring of her dogs’ urinary pH as a source of discouragement. “I thought that unless I could bring their pH higher, their stones would increase,” she says. “To the contrary, not only did they not increase, the stones dissolved. I learned that the key is to monitor the pH and know where you are, but not to panic if the urine stubbornly remains more acidic than you would like.”
Oxalates in food
Oxalic acid is found in both plants and animals, with plants containing higher levels. It forms strong bonds with sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium, creating oxalate salts. The term “oxalate” usually refers to a salt of oxalic acid, one of which is calcium oxalate. Sodium and potassium oxalate salts are water-soluble, but calcium oxalate is not, and it is what forms CaOx uroliths.
In recent years interest in low-oxalate diets has increased because of possible links between oxalates and human kidney stones, arthritis, fibromyalgia, female vulvar pain, autism and other pervasive developmental disorders, and chronic inflammation. As a result, there is growing demand for accurate data on the oxalate content of foods.
When Bean began her research 13 years ago, much of the information published about this subject was quite old. Eventually she found a small booklet published by the University of California at San Diego, “Oxalate Content of Select Foods,” which featured more current data and gave her a list of foods to include and avoid.
Today, the Oxalosis and Hyperoxaluria Foundation (see Resources) publishes an up-to-date list of foods and their oxalate content. Based on research from 2008 and revised as new figures become available, this report divides foods into very high, high, medium, and low levels of oxalates according to serving size (see Oxalate Content of Various Foods below).
The foods in Group 1 (very high-oxalate foods) are best avoided by dogs prone to calcium oxalate stones. Group 2 (high-oxalate) foods should also be avoided:
Group 3 foods have moderate oxalate levels. They can be fed in moderate amounts as long as calcium is also given with the meal. Group 4 (low-oxalate foods) are “green light” ingredients, and can be fed in any quantity, though they should still be combined with calcium. See the complete list, available through the Oxalosis and Hyperoxaluria Foundation (see Resources) for information about additional foods, including herbs, spices, combination foods, and beverages.
Some websites and publications incorrectly list meat, liver, other organ meats, shellfish, cheese, yogurt, broccoli, sardines, cherries, Brussels sprouts, olives, and strawberries as dangerous for CaOx-sensitive dogs, based on outdated information. All of those foods are actually low in oxalates.
Designing the menu
Because it’s difficult to find commercial foods made without ingredients that are problematic for dogs prone to CaOx stones, home-prepared diets may produce the best results. For those who already feed a home-prepared diet to their dogs, the adjustments are simple. For those who are new to dog food preparation, designing an effective menu need not be complicated. Your dog’s food can be prepared along with your own meals or made in advance and refrigerated or frozen in single portions for later use.
Start by feeding different types of meat, poultry, eggs, fish, and dairy in order to provide a variety of flavors and nutrients. The food Bean feeds her dogs is about 40 percent protein by volume, but higher protein levels work well for many dogs. The rest of the diet should be low-oxalate grains and/or vegetables.
While Bean doesn’t include organ meats in her FuzzerFood guidelines, adding 1/2 ounce (about 1 tablespoon) of liver per pound of other foods will add valuable nutrients to a home-prepared diet.
Meat can be ground, cut into cubes, or served in a single piece, assuming the dog doesn’t have problems chewing. It can be fed raw or cooked. Because CaOx dogs on raw bone-based diets have continued to form stones, the FuzzerFood regimen does not include bones. Freeze-dried liver and similar dog treats are appropriate for training and special occasions. Avoid treats that contain high-oxalate ingredients, and factor treats into the daily food allotment of overweight dogs.
Boiling vegetables in water greatly reduces their oxalate content, while steaming reduces levels slightly. Of course, boiling reduces nutritional content, so it’s a trade-off. When you feed Group 3 (moderate-oxalate) vegetables, consider giving smaller amounts raw and larger amounts cooked. Adding digestive enzymes to food at serving time helps replace enzymes destroyed by heat.
Most 10-pound dogs need less than 1 cup of food by volume, while dogs weighing 50 pounds may need closer to 3 cups per day. Bean’s Lhasas maintain their 12- to 14-pound body weight on slightly more than 1 cup per day. The amount to feed will vary according to your dog’s activity level and the amount of low-calorie vegetables in the diet.
Because key supplements should be given twice a day with food, consider feeding both breakfast and dinner rather than one meal per day.
In the past, calcium was thought to be a risk factor for the formation of calcium oxalate stones. Later studies found, however, that calcium binds oxalate and thus actually reduces the risk of calcium oxalate stones when given with meals.
When she spoke with urologists who deal with human kidney stones, Bean learned that supplementing homemade food with calcium citrate neutralizes oxalates in urine, so she began giving it to her dogs with meals while avoiding all other mineral supplements. “Citrate is an important natural inhibitor of calcium oxalate stones,” she says. “When calcium citrate is combined with food at mealtime, it helps absorb and bind excess oxalic acid in the gut. This bound oxalate cannot be absorbed and is excreted through the feces. This means that it does not get into the bloodstream or kidneys to cause stones.”
Pure calcium citrate powder is inexpensive and easy to use. Bean adds 300 to 350 mg of NOW brand Vegetarian Powdered Calcium Citrate to each 8 ounces (1/2 pound) of fresh food to balance the diet’s calcium:phosphorus ratio. Calcium citrate should only be added to homemade diets, or to the fresh portion of a combined diet, as commercial diets should already contain the right amount of calcium (though, unfortunately, they rarely use calcium citrate).
For more than 40 years, the medical literature has reported on the success of a simple nutritional therapy for the prevention of calcium oxalate stones in humans using magnesium and vitamin B6. In studies published in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, The Journal of the American College of Nutrition, and other medical journals since 1967, patients with longstanding, recurrent calcium oxalate kidney stones received 200, 300, or 500 mg magnesium oxide with or without 10 mg pyridoxine (vitamin B6) daily for five years or more, during which their stone formation fell by over 90 percent When measured, their urine increased its ability to keep calcium oxalate in solution.
Because vitamin B6 deficiencies can contribute to an increase in oxalate production, many veterinarians prescribe this vitamin for dogs prone to CaOx stones. Severe vitamin B6 deficiencies may result from genetic disorders. Vitamin B6 is available as an oral supplement or by injection. Follow label directions or, if using a human product, give 1/4 of the total dose for each 25 pounds of body weight.
A B-complex supplement provides all of the needed B-family vitamins. Give 50 mg twice per day to dogs weighing 50 pounds or more, and one-fourth or half that amount to smaller dogs.
The FuzzerFood regimen includes Omega-3 fish or salmon oil, a B-complex vitamin, and vitamin E, with optional CoQ10, magnesium, glucosamine, digestive enzymes, and probiotics.
One study done on people showed that the urinary oxalate was greatly reduced using a high concentration of freeze-dried lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. plantarum, L. brevis, Streptococcus thermophilus, Bifidus infantis, with the last possibly being the most effective). Nature's Sunshine Probiotic Eleven (available at Amazon) and Sedona Labs Iflora (available at Amazon) contain all five of the named strains, while VSL#3 contains four of the five (also available at Amazon).
Updated informaion on probiotics: See Probiotic-induced reduction of gastrointestinal oxalate absorption in healthy subjects and Acute probiotic ingestion reduces gastrointestinal oxalate absorption in healthy subjects for human studies of VSL#3. Other studies indicate that Oxalobacter formigenes is the best known of the oxalate-degrading bacteria, including in dogs, but this species does not appear to be available in supplement form. In a study completed in 2012, Dr. Michael Murtaugh, from the University of Minnesota, determined that healthy dogs have higher quantities of three bacteria that degrade oxalate than do dogs prone to forming oxalate stones. The probiotic species are not named, but presumably include O. formigenes. Dr. Murtaugh now hopes to develop a probiotic containing bacteria that is capable of degrading oxalate and preventing formation of oxalate urinary stones.
Magnesium can have a laxative effect, so begin at the low end of the range, which is 3 to 5 mg per pound of body weight per day, divided into morning and evening doses and given with meals. Magnesium supplementation is contraindicated for dogs in renal failure, so if that is your dog’s condition, use this under your veterinarian’s supervision only as long as there are stones, then discontinue.
Bean does not use either vitamin C or vitamin D (including cod liver oil, which contains vitamin D) because vitamin C is said to convert to oxalate, thus possibly increasing the risk of stone formation, and vitamin D promotes calcium absorption that leads to increased urinary calcium. Most multi-vitamins contain vitamins C and D, so it’s important to read labels.
Supplements manufactured for human consumption come in a wider variety than do veterinary supplements, making it easier to find human products that avoid these ingredients. Adjust the recommended human dose for your dog by weight.
Some researchers have found that glucosamine supplements, which are commonly used for arthritis, may help prevent calcium oxalate crystals from adhering to the bladder wall. While this treatment is still speculative, glucosamine is safe to give and may be helpful in preventing CaOx bladder stone formation.
When Bean asked Traditional Chinese Medicine veterinarian Cory Stiles, DVM, for advice from that perspective, Dr. Stiles recommended Lysimachia-3, a traditional Chinese blend of three herbs, Jin Qian Cao or Desmodium, Hai Jin Sha or Lygodium Spores, and Ji Nei Jin or Gallus, which is designed to treat human digestive disorders, gall stones, and kidney stones.
“Lysimachia-3 comes in tablets,” says Bean, “which we crushed and mixed with food, or the tablet can be placed in a small amount of low-fat cream cheese, or the dog can simply be ‘pilled’ by putting it down the throat. My dogs had no objection to having these tablets crushed and mixed with their food, and Lhasas are notoriously picky.” Dr. Stiles’ recommended dose is 1 700-mg tablet per 25 pounds body weight given twice daily until stones are dissolved. Then give Lysimachia-3 daily for another month, then start using it every other day, then every three days, and if all looks good, dose it three times per week every other week, and finally, daily for one week out of every four to six weeks.
Oxalate Content of Various Foods
The Oxalosis and Hyperoxaluria Foundation publishes an up-to-date list of foods and their oxalate content. Based on research from 2008 and revised as new figures become available, this report divides foods into very high, high, medium, and low levels of oxalates according to serving size. See the complete list for information about additional foods, including herbs, spices, combination foods, and beverages.
Note that different sources provide differing information on oxalates. If you will be feeding a food regularly, you may want to check all the lists under Resources below for that food to further verify the oxalate content.
Soaking grains overnight and discarding the water, then boiling the grains (like pasta) and again discarding the water, can reduce oxalate content.
Group 1 (very high-oxalate foods) are best avoided by dogs prone to calcium oxalate stones:
Bran cereal, almonds, buckwheat flour, beets, miso (fermented soy), mixed nuts, sesame seeds, tahini (sesame paste), parsley, rhubarb, spinach, and Swiss chard. Alfalfa and quinoa are also high in oxalates (not sure which group they belong in).
Group 2 (high-oxalate) foods should also be avoided:
Nuts: cashews, hazelnuts or filberts, peanuts, peanut butter, and pecans.
Vegetables: okra, collard greens, mustard greens, fried potatoes, sweet potatoes, and canned tomato paste.
Legumes: black, white, great northern, navy, chili, and pink beans.
Soy products: textured vegetable protein, soy milk, soy burger, soy yogurt, soy nuts, and soybeans.
Fruit: figs, kiwi fruit, and dried apricots.
Grains: barley, cornmeal, cream of wheat, whole wheat flour and spaghetti, brown rice flour, and wheat bran.
Chocolate, which is toxic to dogs, is a high-oxalate food.
Group 3 foods have moderate oxalate levels. They can be fed in moderate amounts (see the complete list for serving sizes) as long as calcium is also given with the meal:
Nuts and seeds: pistachios and walnuts (macadamia nuts are toxic to dogs).
Vegetables: carrots, celery, green beans, boiled white potatoes without the skin, rutabaga, summer and winter squash, tomato sauce, and tomatoes. The Low Oxalate Cookbook (see Resources) shows that skinless red potatoes are considerably lower in oxalates than white or russet potatoes; all potatoes are lower in oxalates when the skin is removed.
Legumes: kidney, pinto, and adzuki beans.
Fruit: blackberries, blueberries, mandarin and other small oranges, mangos, and prunes. Note berries may be higher in oxalates, while mangos may be low.
Grains: bulgar wheat, brown rice, elbow macaroni, egg noodles, spaghetti, pasta, rye flour, oats, and oatmeal.
Group 4 (low-oxalate foods) are “green light” ingredients. They can be fed in any quantity, though they should still be combined with calcium. Foods in boldface are particularly low in oxalates:
Nuts and seeds: coconut, flax seeds, pumpkin and squash seeds, and sunflower seeds.
Vegetables: artichokes, asparagus, avocado, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, corn, cucumber, garlic, green or red peppers, lettuce, mushrooms, peas, canned pumpkin, sauerkraut, canned string beans, tomato juice, canned water chestnuts, and zucchini. (Onions should never be fed to dogs).
Legumes: lima beans, black-eyed peas, garbanzo beans, lentils, and split peas. Lentils and garbanzo beans may have more oxalates. Split peas have more oxalates than regular peas.
Fruit: apples, fresh apricots, bananas, cantaloupe, cherries, cranberries, grapefruit, lemons, lychee, melons of all types, nectarines, olives, oranges, papayas, passion fruit, peaches, pears, pineapple, plums, raspberries, strawberries, tangerines, and watermelon. (Neither grapes nor raisins should ever be fed to dogs).
Grains: white bread, whole wheat bread, cornbread, hominy (corn grits), oat bran, rice noodles, semolina, white rice, corn and white flour tortillas, and wild rice.
Fats: all fats and oils, including butter.
Fish: all fish and seafood (shellfish).
Dairy: all, including cheese, cottage cheese, cream, eggs, yogurt, ice cream, and sour cream.
Meat: all meat and poultry, including organ meats, luncheon meats, sausage, and bacon.
Sweeteners: all natural sweeteners, including sugar (not recommended for dogs) and honey.
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